Porsche Cayenne (2011)
More dynamic and more efficient, more spacious inside and lighter overall, pointing into the future of technology and in sporting, elegant design - the new Cayenne is more Porsche than ever before.
Led by the Porsche Cayenne S Hybrid, the first production car from Porsche with hybrid drive, the new generation of models paves the way in terms of modern efficiency, with a reduction in fuel consumption by up to 23 per cent versus the former models.
Like every Porsche, the new Cayenne has been developed according to the principle of Porsche Intelligent Performance: more power on less fuel, greater efficiency and lower CO2 emissions.
Given these facts and figures, three out of five models in the range remain below the limit of ten litres fuel consumption per 100 kilometres in the New European Driving Cycle. Two models - the Cayenne Diesel at 195 g/km and the Cayenne S Hybrid at 193 g/km - also remain below the emission limit of 200 grams of CO2 per kilometre.
This significant reduction of fuel consumption throughout the entire range of Porsche Cayenne models results, among other things, from the introduction of Porsche's new eight-speed Tiptronic S automatic transmission complete with Auto Start Stop and an even wider range of gear increments, thermal management on the engine and transmission cooling circuit, recupera tion of the on-board network, variable overrun cut-off and, not least, consistent reduction of weight and intelligent lightweight construction.
Benefiting from a weight-optimised mix of materials and concept changes on the overall vehicle such as the new, extra-light all-wheel drive, weight is down on the Porsche Cayenne Turbo, to mention just one example, by no less than 185 kilos or almost 410 lb, despite the improvement in product substance and an even higher standard of all-round safety. Clearly, this is good news not only in terms of fuel consumption and CO2 emissions, but also when it comes to performance, agility and handling on the road.
As a result, the new Porsche Cayenne offers even more driving pleasure than before both onroad and offroad, combined with even greater everyday driving qualities, enhanced comfort and supreme elegance. Brand-new, sporting but elegant design makes the new generation of the Cayenne in 2010 an even closer member of the Porsche family, bringing out its particular character as a sporting performer even more from every angle and clearly re-vealing that particular shape and design so typical of a Porsche.
World Premiere of the Porsche Cayenne with Parallel Full Hybrid
Presenting the Cayenne S Hybrid, Porsche is proudly introducing the Company's first hybrid drive vehicle in the market. Developing this trendsetting system, Porsche's engineers are following in the footsteps of no lesser than Ferdinand Porsche himself, who created the Lohner-Porsche Semper Vivus way back in the year 1900. To this day, the Semper Vivus is acknowledged as the first functional full hybrid in the world.
The Porsche Cayenne S Hybrid is driven primarily by a supercharged three-litre V6 with direct gasoline injection developing maximum output of 333 hp. This modern power unit interacts with an electric motor delivering 34 kW (47 hp) output and peak torque of 300 Nm (221 lb) maintained consistently up to a speed of 1,150 rpm.
The electric motor is able to drive the Porsche Cayenne by itself or support the combustion engine, while also serving as a generator and starter. Together with the separator clutch, it forms the hybrid module positioned between the combustion engine and the new eight-speed automatic transmission.
A further essential component of the hybrid system is the 288-V nickel metal-hydride (NiMh) battery beneath the floor of the luggage compartment, serving to save electrical energy generated when applying the brakes and re-gained while driving.
Using a six-cylinder engine, the Porsche Cayenne S Hybrid offers the power and performance of an eight-cylinder on much lower fuel consumption. With its overall output of 380 hp, the new Cayenne S Hybrid consumes just 8.2 ltr/100 km (equal to 34.5 mpg imp) in the New European Driving Cycle and limits CO2 emissions to a mere 193 g/km. This makes the new Cayenne S Hybrid not only the cleanest Cayenne with the lowest level of CO2, but rather the cleanest Porsche throughout the brand's entire portfolio.
Specific hybrid driving conditions
The Porsche Cayenne S Hybrid offers the following driving conditions, together with many other qualities:
- Driving on electric power alone: In this case the electric motor drives the vehicle all by itself without any support from the combustion engine. With the driver opting for a moderate style of motoring - for example in residential areas - the Cayenne S Hybrid is able to cover short distances with zero emissions and minimum noise up to a speed of 60 km/h or 37 mph.
- Boosting: In this case the Cayenne S Hybrid is powered by the combustion engine and the electric motor together. The joint power of both drive units ensures optimum acceleration, for example when overtaking.
- Shifting the load point: The combustion engine drives the vehicle by itself, at the same time charging the traction battery through the electric motor acting as a generator. The power used by the generator constitutes a further load on the combustion engine, which is therefore able to operate at a more favourable load point with higher efficiency.
- Recuperation: The kinetic energy of the vehicle is converted into electrical energy when applying the brakes, and the battery is charged in the process.
- Sailing: Whenever the driver takes back the gas pedal at a speed of up to 156 km/h or 97 mph the combustion engine is switched off and detached to avoid any drag forces from the engine.
- Auto Start Stop: The combustion engine is automatically switched off at a standstill, for example with the traffic lights on red or in a traffic jam.
Compact and light parallel full hybrid
Porsche uses a parallel full hybrid instead of the usual split hybrid to be found otherwise in the market - and there are several reasons for this concept: Unlike other hybrid concepts which offer their benefits primarily in town, the system developed by Porsche also offers the opportunity to "sail" along in the Cayenne S Hybrid up to a speed of 156 km/h or 97 mph without using the combustion engine. A further advantage is that parallel full hybrid offers the acceleration and elasticity so typical of a Porsche without the "rubber band" effect of split hybrid systems. All this makes the parallel full hybrid a perfect match for Porsche's philosophy to offer outstanding performance and supreme efficiency all in one.
A further advantage is the compact size of the system, the complete hybrid module measuring only 147.5 millimetres or 5.8" in length. Integrated between the combustion engine and the transmission, the hybrid module is made up primarily of a ring-shaped synchronous motor and a separator clutch on the side facing the combustion engine, providing the same flow of power and characteristics as a conventional drive system.
A pioneering achievement from Porsche: intelligent control by the Hybrid Manager
A parallel full hybrid makes substantial demands of the components involved and the con trol functions. Interaction of the main components - the combustion engine, the electric motor, the separator clutch, and the battery - is extremely complex and is coordinated by the Hybrid Manager using all the know-how of the Porsche hybrid system. The Hybrid Manager receives all driving and energy information and controls both the electric motor and the combustion engine for optimum fuel economy under all conditions. It also makes sure that the battery does not run too flat nor that it is charged and de-charged too often.
Another key component of parallel full hybrid drive is the separator clutch between the combustion engine and the electric motor using particularly strong and resistant friction pads. The separator clutch works so smoothly and sensitively that the driver will not even notice the combustion engine engaging and disengaging, although the full power of both drive units is always available without the slightest delay for fast and powerful acceleration. This means that with the combustion engine switched off all the driver has to do to start the engine almost immediately is press down the gas pedal, the engine revving up spontaneously and the clutch engaging without the driver even noticing the entire process.
The Porsche Cayenne S Hybrid does all this in just 300 milliseconds, performing several processes all at the same time: As soon as the combustion engine cuts in the converter lockup clutch on the torque converter in the automatic transmission opens up and the torque coming from the electric motor is briefly increased to start the six-cylinder. At the same time the clutch between the electric motor and the combustion engine closes in a defined pressure curve within 70 milliseconds.
Apart from the intricate interaction of the combustion engine and the electric motor, all this is ensured by the innovative spindle actuator in the clutch control unit masterminding the hydraulic pressure operating the clutch with a level of precision never seen before.
Every time the engine cuts in the Hybrid Manager evaluates current driving conditions and the driver's wish for acceleration, choosing the appropriate starting procedure - either a "comfort start" of the combustion engine or, if the driver wishes to enjoy more power, a particularly spontaneous "power start".
Additional reduction of fuel consumption: sailing up to 156 km/h (97 mph)
Using the separator clutch, Porsche full hybrid drive is also able to offer a further reduction of fuel consumption at higher speeds by driving in the "sailing" mode: Whenever the driver does not need any drive power, all he has to do is take back the gas pedal to completely dis connect the combustion engine from the drivetrain at speeds of up to 156 km/h (97 mph). The driver is therefore able to eliminate engine drag forces with their strong braking effect while sailing, thus reducing both drive resistance and fuel consumption.
In the sailing mode the electric motor operates as a generator, delivering electric power.
Should the driver accelerate in the sailing mode, for example when overtaking, the combustion engine starts again quickly and smoothly within fractions of a second, revving up to the appropriate engine speed matching the actual speed of the vehicle. As a result, the driver is able to accelerate spontaneously also at this speed, just like in a Porsche Cayenne with a conventional power unit.
The sailing mode is available from low road speeds and start automatically once the driver takes his foot off the gas pedal, opening up the separator clutch and automatically switching off the combustion engine. "Sailing" is therefore equal to gliding or simply "rolling along" without using the power of the combustion engine or electric motor.
The Porsche Cayenne S Hybrid delivers its maximum output in the boost mode, adding the drive power of the combustion engine and the electric motor to one another as a big advantage of the parallel full hybrid concept: While the combustion engine develops its maximum torque of 440 Nm (324 lb-ft) in the range between 3,000 and 5,250 rpm, the electric motor is able to use its full torque of up to 300 Nm/221 lb-ft all the way from a standstill.
Maximum output of the two drive units of 380 hp comes at 5,500 rpm, while combined torque of 580 Nm/427 lb-ft cuts in at just 1,000 rpm for truly muscular acceleration at all times.
With the maximum torque of the two drive units being developed in different speed ranges, it is not possible to simply add up the maximum torque figures. Since the torque delivered by the electric motor drops again at higher speeds, the combustion engine continuing to benefit from the electric motor ensures an ongoing, consistent and efficient torque curve also at high engine revs, the two drive units supplementing each other perfectly and allowing the driver to use all the superior power of the system throughout the entire range of engine speed.
The Porsche Cayenne S Hybrid thus benefits from the intelligent interaction of both power units through its particularly sporting acceleration from a standstill and superior driving dynamics also at high speeds, for example when accelerating.
With the Porsche Cayenne Sports Button in the normal mode, the electric boost effect is available immediately through the kick-down function. With the Sports Button activated, the boost range is shifted forward and the two drive units interact with one another as soon as the driver presses down the gas pedal with maximum force by 80 per cent.
E-Power Button extends driving range under electric power
Activating the E-Power Button in the centre console, the driver is able to extend the availability of the all-electric driving mode. Activation of the button is displayed by an LED on the button itself and by the word "E-Power" coming on in blue in the instrument cluster.
Availability of E-Power depends on parameters such as the battery charge status and battery temperature. The E-Power mode modifies the gas pedal control map, allowing the system to follow the driver's wish for acceleration much more smoothly and preventing the combustion engine from cutting in automatically at a too early a point whenever the driver wishes to use more power.
Saving fuel by generating electric power
A further fundamental benefit offered by the Hybrid Manager is its ability to shift the load point when driving with the combustion engine: Every power unit operates most economically within a certain load range. Whenever the six-cylinder runs below this point under part load, the Hybrid Manager automatically gives more gas and uses this extra power to generate electric energy. The generator output and the opening of the throttle butterflies are therefore controlled in the most appropriate way for running the combustion engine with greater efficiency, making optimum use of the fuel available and "parking" some of the electrical energy generated in the battery.
All this goes unnoticed to the driver, with both engine and road speed remaining unchanged. In other words, the Porsche Cayenne drives as if it were moving up from a flat stretch of road to a gradient with cruise control switched on, the car thus travelling at the same, consistent speed.
Last but certainly not least, the Hybrid Manager makes sure that when pressing down the brake pedal as much energy as possible goes from the electric motor operating as a generator to the battery. To ensure this effect, the control system sets the power of the generator to the travel of the brake pedal, ensuring that the vehicle is braked in part - in some cases completely - by electric power alone, the conventional brake system only cutting in at higher speeds and under greater brake power.
High-power traction battery
The Porsche Cayenne S Hybrid uses a nickel metal-hydride battery as its traction battery - that is battery technology already proven in the automobile.
The nickel metal-hydride battery does not require any maintenance and is gas-tight, fitting conveniently thanks to its compact dimensions beneath the completely flat floor of the luggage compartment to retain the substantial luggage capacity offered by the Cayenne.
The battery generates maximum output of 38 kW and saves up to 1.7 kilowatt hours of energy. The effective battery capacity is presented clearly in per cent both in the instrument cluster and on the monitor of the optional PCM Porsche Communication Management control unit.
The battery is charged while driving through the recuperative brake energy process and by shifting the load point of the combustion engine for optimum fuel efficiency. Again under practical conditions, the battery is able to re-gain the energy of up to one litre of fuel every 100 kilometres on the road. The energy saved, in turn, may be used to drive exclusively on electric power without using the combustion engine or to support the combustion engine while driving.
Weighing approximately 80 kg or 176 lb together with its frame, the battery is made up of 240 cells generating the power required of 288 volts. With its operating range starting at -30°, the battery offers excellent starting performance even in - very - cold conditions. At the same time the temperature range goes all the way to 40° C or 104° F, meaning that the battery covers virtually the entire range of temperatures the driver will experience in the car.
When charging and de-charging, the battery generates heat which must be dissipated in order to protect the battery cells. Climatised air from the interior is therefore used to cool the battery, being drawn in from the passenger compartment through ducts beneath the rear seat bench.
In addition to this new technology, the Porsche Cayenne S Hybrid comes with a conventional 12-volt battery beneath the driver's seat supplying energy to the vehicle's on-board network. This 12-volt battery may be re-charged by a conventional battery charger, while at the same time the Porsche Dealer and Service Station is able to charge the traction battery via a high-voltage connection and an appropriate charge unit.
In the parking mode the Battery Manager regularly checks the charge status of the battery and the individual voltage levels within each cell. To optimise the charge status of the complete battery and keep cell voltage within its tolerance limits, battery charge may be automa tically balanced between the cells or the cells may be de-charged in an appropriate process.
When parking the entire high-voltage circuit is opened up by a high-performance switch, preventing electric power from leaking while the car is at a standstill and securing the traction battery against any unwanted self-discharge.
When the driver starts the car with his key, finally, the battery activated via the 12-volt onboard network operates the protector switch to start the combustion engine via the battery and to close the high-voltage circuit once again.
Powerful and fuel-efficient: the engines
The new Cayenne comes with an upgraded generation of the engines already featured in the former models: the Porsche Cayenne boasts a 3.6-litre V6 naturally-aspirated power unit with output increased to 300 hp, the Cayenne Diesel comes with a high-torque 3.0-litre V6 turbodiesel, and the Cayenne S as well as the Cayenne Turbo both feature a supreme 4.8-litre V8.
All of the engines have been upgraded and updated in their essential features, resulting in part in a slight increase in engine output and a significant reduction of fuel consumption on all models.
For the first time the new Porsche Cayenne comes with map-controlled thermal management masterminding the processes taking place in the vehicle. Forming part of the thermal management system, the radiator features two cooling circuits activated as a function of coolant temperature by a thermostat for automatic, on-demand interruption of coolant supply as long as the engine is cold. This enables the engine to warm up more quickly, at the same time reducing friction, fuel consumption and emissions in the warm-up phase.
Depending on the increase in engine temperature, coolant is allowed to flow through the engine (in the so-called small circuit) while warming up, activating the main radiator as a function of the engine's operating point (main coolant circuit). This thermal management alone reduces fuel consumption by up to 1.5 per cent by making the warm-up period shorter after the engine has been started cold.
All new versions of the Porsche Cayenne with Tiptronic S also come with separate thermal management on the transmission. Here again, the objective is to reach the optimum operating temperature as quickly as possible in order to minimise friction losses - which is why the heat exchanger on the coolant circuit of the new eight-speed Tiptronic S transmission is directly connected to the cooling circuit on the engine. This allows quicker use of the heat in the engine coolant warmed up more quickly whenever necessary, warming up the transmission to its best operating temperature with greater efficiency.
Yet a further function serving to reduce fuel consumption is on-board network recuperation. This system shifts the generation of energy through the alternator for charging the starter battery in all new versions of the Cayenne to the actual application of the brakes while the vehicle is slowing down, thus retaining part of the kinetic energy saved in the starter battery. When driving at a steady speed and when accelerating, on the other hand, the alternator delivers as little energy as possible and the on-board network is supplied primarily from the starter battery charged during application of the brakes. This relieves the combustion engine from the usual need to charge the alternator, which again means a direct reduction of fuel consumption. In the New European Driving Cycle, for example, recuperation of energy supplied to the on-board network reduces fuel consumption by 0.15 litres/100 kilometres.
New: Auto Start Stop and variable overrun control
All new versions of the Porsche Cayenne with eight-speed Tiptronic S transmission optional on the base model and standard on all others, come with an Auto Start Stop function. Auto Start Stop switches off the combustion engine under defined conditions as long as the vehicle is at a standstill, reducing fuel consumption and emissions in the process and thus preventing the engine from idling unnecessarily, for example when stopping at the traffic lights.
As soon as the vehicle comes to a halt due to application of the brakes, with the driver holding the brake pedal in position, the Auto Start Stop function will switch off the engine after about a second, informing the driver accordingly through the green Auto Start Stop symbol in the instrument cluster.
In the process the driver may leave the selector lever in position D or M, and the engine will remain inactive also when shifting to P and N. Once the driver lets go of the brake pedal, the engine will start again and the driver can set off without a delay. For reasons of safety, however, this is not possible if the driver's door or the engine compartment lid are open or if the driver is not wearing his seat belt.
Under certain conditions the engine is intentionally not switched off when coming to a halt, for example when the driver has activated the Sports Mode, when towing a trailer or when the vehicle is in a parking or manoeuvring process. In such cases the driver is informed by a yellow Auto Start Stop symbol in the instrument cluster that the system has not switched off the engine.
A further new feature is variable overrun control, a further development of the conventional overrun switch-off function. In principle, overrun control switches off the supply of fuel in overrun whenever the combustion engine is in overrun, with the driver easing back the gas pedal, for example when approaching the traffic lights or driving downhill.
Compared with conventional overrun control starting to inject fuel again as of a certain engine speed, fuel injection starts much later with variable overrun control as a function of driving conditions, helping to save even more fuel in the process.
The six-cylinders: three engines, three concepts
Porsche is able to offer no less than three six-cylinder V-engines with direct fuel injection in the new generation of the Cayenne: The Cayenne boasts Porsche's upgraded 3.6-litre power unit, the new Cayenne S Hybrid comes as the first Porsche with a supercharged three-litre. The Cayenne Diesel, finally, features a three-litre turbocharged engine based on the power unit already to be admired in the former model.
Apart from the significant reduction of fuel consumption, the objective in upgrading the engine in the Porsche Cayenne was to achieve more power and torque. Hence, the increase in engine power by 10 hp to 300 hp (220 kW) and the increase in torque by 15 Nm/11 lb-ft to a new peak of 400 Nm/295 lb-ft at 3,000 rpm are the result of a whole range of improvements. Just three examples are the optimised hot-film air mass metre, the reduction of friction losses within the engine, and the new set-up of electronic engine management.
New thermal management, variable overrun control and Auto Start Stop in conjunction with the new eight-speed Tiptronic S all help to ensure a higher level of efficiency. This gives the new Cayenne with optional Tiptronic S overall fuel consumption in the New European Driving Cycle of just 9.9 ltr/100 km (equal to 28.5 mpg imp), about 20 per cent better than on the former model. Combined with the standard manual gearbox without Auto Start Stop, fuel consumption is 11.2 ltr/100 km (equal to 25.2 mpg imp), still a reduction by about 10 per cent from the former model.
Introducing these new technologies, Porsche's engineers are focusing not only on fuel economy and performance, but also on specific features serving to optimise running smoothness and motoring comfort on the road. In the upgraded 3.6-litre V6, these improvements include a forged steel crankshaft serving not only to save weight, but also to improve engine smoothness. And with the help of the electronic dipstick, the driver is now able to check the engine oil level while idling without having to open up the engine lid.
First-time achievement from Porsche: supercharged six-cylinder
The power unit featured in the new Porsche Cayenne S Hybrid marks an important premiere with Porsche not just because of the additional electric motor - rather, this is the first time that Porsche is using a V6 with direct gasoline injection and supercharging as the primary source of power. Displacing exactly 2,995 cc, this outstanding power unit delivers maximum output of 333 hp (245 kW) all the way from 5,500 - 6,500 rpm, with peak torque of 440 Nm/324 lb-ft maintained consistently from 3,000 - 5,250 rpm.
Apart from providing the performance and driving qualities so typical of Porsche together with the supreme power of a V8, the big advantages of this engine are low fuel consump tion, reduced CO2 emissions, and the fulfilment of all emission standards the world over. As a result, the Cayenne S Hybrid offers the efficient performance rightly expected of a Porsche in a new and truly convincing manner.
The engine is a four-valve power unit with two camshafts on each row of cylinders and a cylinder bank angle of 90°. Like the V8 power unit in the Porsche Cayenne S and Cayenne Turbo, the new three-litre V6 features an aluminium engine block, an aluminium cylinder head, as well as modern engine technology such as thermal management and a fully controlled oil pump. And like on the other V6 power units, the oil supply system uses wet sump lubrication.
Unlike Porsche engines so far, the new power unit is boosted not by exhaust gas turbo chargers, but rather by a supercharger interacting with an intercooler. The reason, quite simply, is that this concept offers clear benefits for the specific purposes and characteristics of parallel full hybrid drive in an SUV: With the supercharger featuring a permanent mechanical link to the crankdrive, charge pressure is immediately available and the flow of air mass increases consistently as a function of engine speed. The position of the supercharger within the V-section of the two rows of cylinders keeps the travel distance for intake and compressed air flowing to the cylinders short and dynamic, giving the supercharged engine a spontaneous response and muscular torque at low engine speeds. And last but not least, the engine runs perfectly in unison with the electric motor.
The supercharger is a Roots blower complete with a bypass. Two parallel shafts connected by gears in the supercharger housing are driven by separate belt drive, while rotors on each of the two shafts seal off the system at all sides, that is against the blades of the opposite rotor and the supercharger housing.
Moving in opposite directions, the two shafts convey the air without compression between the rotors from the air intake in the supercharger to the air outlet. The rotors each come with four vanes and are set off the longitudinal axis by a total of 160° to ensure a smooth and continuous supply of air. The compression effect is provided by ramming the air into the air mass built up upstream of the intake valves. To improve the charge effect, finally, the supercharger comes with an intercooler featuring a low-temperature cooling circuit on each row of cylinders.
Since charge air is not required under all driving conditions and the ongoing build-up of charge pressure would create an air jam and, accordingly, a loss of power, the supercharger comes with integrated boost pressure control. Instead of an elaborate control system using a magnetic clutch to connect and disconnect the compressor, the system chosen in the Cayenne features a fully-controlled bypass flap.
Fuel-efficient and clean: V6 diesel
Focusing on the three-litre turbodiesel in the Cayenne Diesel, Porsche's engineers sought above all to further reduce fuel consumption and exhaust emissions in the process of upgrading the engine. The result is that with power remaining unchanged at 240 hp (176 kW) and torque reaching an impressive 550 Nm/405 lb-ft, fuel consumption is down from an already low 9.3 ltr (equal to 30.4 mpg imp) to truly outstanding 7.4 ltr/100 km, equal to 38.2 mpg imp. At the same time it almost goes without saying that the new Porsche Cayenne Diesel complies in full with the EU5 emission limit.
Fuel is injected into the combustion chambers by piezo-valves building up pressure of up to 1,800 bar. The charge effect is provide by turbochargers with variable turbine geometry (VTG turbochargers), with fully controlled exhaust gas recirculation, an oxidation catalyst, as well as a particulates filter ensuring highly effective emission management.
An essential feature in enhancing the engine's efficiency was to integrate a fully controlled oil pump. Now the oil pump is controlled on-demand by engine management, with oil pressure being adjusted hydraulically by moving a gear wheel along the pump shaft and thus varying the level of geometric volume. As a result, the pump only operates as required to meet current engine requirements at the respective load level.
Being appropriately optimised, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) serves to minimise emissions and help the engine fulfil the EU5 emission standard. The exhaust gas recirculation module now comes with a higher level of cooling efficiency and, as a result, greater throughput. A further result is the reduction of peak temperatures in the combustion process, with less nitric oxides being formed in the combustion chamber.
Superior power with even greater efficiency: the V8 power units
The fully upgraded family of V8 power units is made up of the even more powerful 4.8-litre naturally-aspirated engine now delivering 400 hp and 500 Nm/369 lb-ft maximum torque in the new Porsche Cayenne S and a turbocharged 500 hp together with 700 Nm/516 lb-ft in the new Cayenne Turbo.
With the two power units being designed and upgraded together, the natural-aspiration and the turbocharged engine share a particularly large number of common parts. And once again it almost goes without saying that the new V8 engines featured in the Cayenne S and the Cayenne Turbo come with all new technologies to reduce fuel consumption, such as thermal management, on-board network recuperation, variable overrun control, and the Auto Start Stop function.
The proven light-alloy block of the V8 power units is further enhanced by the even more comprehensive use of aluminium and magnesium, saving approximately 7 kg or 15 lb in weight on the valve timing cover, the valve cover itself, the camshaft adjuster, various bolts, and the crankdrive. As an example, the new generation of V8 power units comes with a new lightweight camshaft adjuster for adjusting valve timing through VarioCam Plus made completely of aluminium. This alone reduces engine weight by approximately 1.7 kg or 3.8 lb, minimising the rotating masses in the process, improving the speed of adjustment, and giving the engine an even more agile response.
Both power units now feature pressure-controlled measurement of air mass instead of a hot-film air mass metre, with the advantage of lower intake air resistance and an even better flow of air.
On the normal-aspiration power unit in the Porsche Cayenne S a newly developed, lighter crankshaft and lighter connecting rods reduce the movement of masses and weight within the engine. In all, the crankdrive on the eight-cylinder is 2.3 kg or 5.1 lb lighter than before.
A further feature on the eight-cylinder is the oil flow housing made of magnesium, again reducing engine weight by approximately 2 kg or 4.4 lb. The intake camshafts, to mention yet another example, have been optimised for a very smooth flow of power and torque. Together with the new intake system boasting a larger throttle butterfly and optimised electronic engine management, the 4.8-litre naturally-aspirated V8 now delivers maximum output of 400 hp at 6,500 rpm.
In combination with other technologies serving to reduce fuel consumption, these modifications also help to ensure optimum fuel economy: The new Cayenne S requires just 10.5 ltr/100 km (equal to 26.9 mpg imp) in the New European Driving Cycle, approximately 23 per cent less than its predecessor. CO2 emissions, to mention another example, are down 26 per cent to 245 g/km.
The V8 biturbo engine featured in the Porsche Cayenne Turbo comes with a new, weight-optimised crankshaft and a new oil flow housing made of aluminium. The crankshaft features a larger counterweight radius than the former crankdrive, with the overall weight of the crankdrive down by 0.6 kg or 1.3 lb.
Reduction in weight and the latest engine technology makes the turbocharged 4.8-litre power unit in the Cayenne Turbo even more efficient, with average fuel consumption in the New European Driving Cycle of just 11.5 ltr/100 km (equal to 24.6 mpg imp), 23 per cent less than on the former model.
At 270 g/km, CO2 emissions are down 25 per cent versus the former Porsche Cayenne Turbo. Performance, on the other hand, is even better than before, the new Cayenne Turbo reaching a top speed of 278 km/h or 172 mph and accelerating from a standstill to 100 km/h in just 4.7 seconds.
Ultra-modern exhaust systems - as an option also in sports trim
To fulfil all emission standards the world over, all models in the Porsche Cayenne range come with an exhaust system specially tailored to each engine. All exhaust units are made of long-life stainless steel.
To keep emissions low particularly when starting the engine cold, the catalytic converter must be heated up quickly to its optimum operating temperature. This is done by keeping the exhaust manifolds on all models very short, using the high temperature of the exhaust gas to heat up the catalytic converters. As a result, the highly effective pre- and main catalysts are able to warm up more quickly, guaranteeing highly effective management of exhaust emissions.
The Cayenne with its optional Tiptronic S and the Cayenne S are both available as an option with a sports exhaust system generating an even throatier and more voluminous sound.
The sports exhaust system is adjusted and set up by the Sports Button featured as standard on the centre console.
First Tiptronic S with Eight Gears
Porsche has developed the first Tiptronic S with eight gears for the new Cayenne model series. This highly advanced transmission comes as standard on all models in the range, with the exception of the 3.6-litre Porsche Cayenne fitted as standard with a six-speed manual gearbox.
Introducing this new eight-speed Tiptronic S, Porsche is offering a transmission in the Cayenne family which stands out in particular through its superior efficiency and fast gearshift for supreme shift and driving comfort. The overall range of gear spread up by 20 per cent, for example, is used completely to make the two additional gears genuine overdrive or economy gears consistently keeping the engine in the optimum speed and load range at all times: Engine speed is reduced by 20 per cent, respectively, in the seventh and eighth gear, serving to substantially reduce fuel consumption particularly on long stretches of the Autobahn. In practice this means an even bigger improvement in fuel economy under everyday driving conditions than in the standardised measuring cycle.
To optimise the engine's starting behaviour, the Porsche Cayenne with its new eight-speed Tiptronic S always sets off in first gear. Top speed, on the other hand, comes in sixth gear.
Gearshift up to 0.15 seconds faster on the new transmission ensures maximum agility and driving pleasure at all times. Indeed, the entire process of shifting gears is so smooth that the driver hardly notices any change in gears.
The fast gearshift with hardly any interruption of traction and pulling power allows a very agile style of motoring also in the automatic mode. The technology responsible for this even faster gearshift is the new configuration of the hydraulic gearshift units with direct control of the valves and optimised engagement use of the shift functions.
Tiptronic S: programmed for individual driving profiles
Benefiting from intelligent gearshift programs, the driver is able to control the shift behaviour of the Tiptronic S transmission through the gas and brake pedals. When moving the gas pedal abruptly, the shift points are moved immediately into the dynamic control map, without requiring the usual kick-down effect.
This prevents the transmission from shifting up under overrun whenever the driver takes back the gas pedal abruptly, for example in a bend. At the same time the appropriate gear is held in position to avoid shifting up in a bend, making the vehicle even more stable and safer on the road.
When applying the brakes hard, on the other hand, Tiptronic S shifts down quickly to the next lower gear to use the full brake effect of the engine. Gradient recognition, finally, ensures even better acceleration uphill and extra brake force from the engine when travelling downhill.
As in the past, the driver has the choice of the two Normal and Sports modes. Within these basic programs, the gearshift control maps are adjusted even more sensitively to the driver's individual style of motoring.
To ensure maximum performance immediately when activating the Sports Button, the control maps on the Tiptronic S transmission shift faster to the sports map than in the Normal mode, suppressing gears 7 and 8 as a function of the driver's style of motoring and the speed of the car, and shifting back when braking even under slight brake pressure in order to provide better acceleration afterwards.
In the Normal mode Tiptronic S offers a particularly economical style of motoring, reducing fuel consumption by shifting up early and shifting down late.
In its gearshift characteristics, the transmission in the Cayenne S Hybrid is adapted to the wider range of driving conditions this vehicle has to offer. This is indeed essential to increase the recuperation effect on the brakes by adjusting shift speeds (when shifting down) or to re-start the combustion engine smoothly and comfortably when leaving the all-electric mode and shifting gears only rarely.
This special set-up of the eight-speed Tiptronic S transmission also offers the optimum gearshift strategy when boosting, with additional drive power coming from the electric motor.
Offroad set-up for rough terrain The Tiptronic S transmission also comes with a special offroad mode for rough terrain (with the exception of the Cayenne S Hybrid).
As soon as the driver activates Offroad Mode 1 by pressing the central offroad toggle switch on the centre console, Tiptronic S switches to a gearshift program specially tailored to offroad requirements and focusing in particular on extra traction and the precise dosage of engine power.
Shifting up later and shifting down earlier, this special mode reduces the number of gearshifts by making maximum use of the speed range available in each gear. To ensure optimum control of the vehicle, the transmission does not shift up or down automatically in the manual mode, even when the driver kicks down the gas pedal. A further feature is that the converter lock-up clutch closes at a later point than in the Normal and Sports Mode, allowing better dosage of power particularly at low speeds and in rough terrain.
The driver will generally operate the new eight-speed Tiptronic S transmission via the selector level in the centre console or the two push buttons on the steering wheel. Pressing one of the two buttons forward, he shifts up Tiptronic S, pulling one of the buttons towards himself from behind the steering wheel, the driver shifts down in Tiptronic S.
A three-spoke sports steering wheel with shift paddles is also available.
The driving mode and the gear selected by the driver are both presented in the engine speed digital display, an upshift lock ensuring a sporting and direct feeling at the wheel at all times by preventing the transmission from shifting up automatically with the gas pedal down 100 per cent when reaching the speed limiter. In that case the transmission will shift up only when the driver operates the selector lever, pushes the buttons on the steering wheel, or kicks down the gas pedal.
With its new Auto Start Stop function, every new Porsche Cayenne enables the driver to save extra fuel in town. Combining this function with an automatic transmission was a particular challenge for Porsche's engineers, ensuring that the Cayenne is able to set off again immediately after the engine is re-started. To do this after having come to a halt, the engine and transmission require sufficient oil pressure to ensure the slip-free transmission of power.
On a conventional automatic transmission pressure is built up by a mechanically driven transmission fluid pump able to provide the oil pressure and volume flow for setting off only when the engine has reached a higher speed. With the additional electric oil pump on the new Tiptronic S transmission, on the other hand, a sufficient supply of oil for the shift units is maintained also while the engine has come to a halt. This makes it possible to minimise the response time of the transmission, the vehicle setting off after an Auto Start Stop virtually without the slightest delay, and the driver and passengers not noticing any difference from a vehicle with the engine already running.
Porsche's new eight-speed Tiptronic S is based on the former six-speed automatic transmission, extended by an additional shift element providing the two extra gears. The front and rear planetary gearsets have been re-configured to provide a broad spread of transmission ratios.
A further advantage is that the new transmission does not require any more space than the former unit, with the eight-speed transmission measuring exactly the same in length as the former six-speed gearbox. The better power-to-weight ratio of the transmission, a higher degree of efficiency and the optimisation of individual components likewise serve to enhance the overall level of efficiency, high-performance vibration dampers in the converter lock-up clutch, for example, allowing the engine to run with the converter locked up at far lower speeds in the interest of greater fuel economy.
Fuel-saving thermal management also with Tiptronic S
To reach the optimum operating temperature as quickly as possible after starting cold and thus minimise friction within the transmission, the new Tiptronic S for the first time comes with thermal management connecting the transmission's cooling circuit with the engine's cooling system via a heat exchanger. Depending on individual requirements, this ensures exactly the right exchange of heat between the engine and transmission and helps to further reduce fuel consumption on the new Cayenne. With the engine being started cold, for example, the cooling circuit on the transmission is warmed up by the engine coolant heating up more quickly, thus reducing frictional resistance in the transmission as quickly as possible. Then, with temperatures increasing, the heat exchanger is used exclusively for cooling.
Should the cooling effect of the heat exchanger not be sufficient, the system will resort to the air heat exchanger with its higher capacity fitted in the front of the vehicle.
Tiptronic S in the new Porsche Cayenne S Hybrid differs in various details from the eight-speed automatic transmission featured in the other models. As an example, the two oil pumps generate a higher volume flow required specifically under high loads, for example when boosting or in the recuperation mode, in order to convey high transmission forces. In that case the electrical oil pump is added on individually as required.
The manual six-speed gearbox in the "base" version of the Cayenne is perfectly matched to the high output and specific characteristics of the six-cylinder power unit. The final drive ratio ensures excellent performance, superior driving qualities on long distances, and a high level of comfort.
The transmission communicates with the driver through an upshift display in the instrument cluster, advising the driver to shift up one gear in the interest of fuel economy as a function of the gear in mesh, engine speed, and the position of the gas pedal. The two-mass flywheel integrated between the engine and transmission, finally, ensures a high standard of motoring comfort by minimising vibrations while driving.
Porsche Traction Management with a new concept
Porsche has developed a new concept of all-wheel drive for the new Cayenne, focusing in the process on two factors in particular: lower weight and even greater agility on the road.
Introduction of the new Porsche Traction Management (PTM) together with eight-speed Tiptronic S avoids the need for a reduced-ratio gearbox without making any concessions in terms of offroad requirements relevant to the customer under normal conditions.
A further advantage of the new PTM is the introduction of numerous measures for the reduction of weight on the rest of the drivetrain. In all, the use of lightweight propeller shafts, lighter final drive units front and rear, and the absence of a reduced-ratio gearbox saves some 33 kilos or 73 lb in weight.
The focus in developing PTM was on optimising driving dynamics on the road while retaining the outstanding offroad qualities of the Porsche Cayenne. The result is two different PTM systems geared to the specific characteristics of the new models: In the Cayenne Diesel and the Cayenne S Hybrid, PTM comes with permanent all-wheel drive complete with a self-locking centre differential. In the Cayenne, Cayenne S and Cayenne Turbo, on the other hand, PTM features active all-wheel drive with an electronically controlled, map-guided multiple-plate clutch.
This active all-wheel-drive system is featured on the particularly sporting and dynamic versions of the Porsche Cayenne because, with its wide range of power and torque distribution, hangon all-wheel drive offers benefits in terms of driving dynamics, agility and traction control, thus highlighting the performance of the specific models concerned.
Permanent all-wheel drive with a self-locking centre differential, on the other hand, is reserved to the Cayenne Diesel and the Cayenne S Hybrid. Variable engine and torque distribution on the rear axle featured as standard nevertheless ensures the performance and driving dynamics typical of a Porsche also with PTM featuring permanent all-wheel drive.
Under all conditions Porsche Traction Management distributes drive power as required from the rear to the front axle, thus combining superior traction and driving stability with unusually dynamic handling. The extremely compact power divider on the all-wheel drive unit featured in the new Porsche Cayenne is housed in a separate casing directly next to the transmission.
PTM also comes with the ABD Automatic Brake Differential for improved traction, ASR Anti- Slip Control for improved vehicle stability, and on-demand PHC Porsche Hill Control for driving down steep gradients in a smooth and controlled process.
All-wheel drive adjustable individually on each model by the offroad lever
Depending on the specific version of the Cayenne, the driver is able to adjust the car's offroad abilities in various stages.
All systems are therefore optimised for offroad requirements with the objective to improve traction on rough terrain. A separate switch on the Porsche Cayenne S Hybrid, for example, serves to activate Porsche Hill Control as an assistance function cutting in as of a gradient 12 per cent.
The Cayenne, Cayenne S, and Cayenne Turbo offer further functions operated via a central offroad switch in the centre console: In Offroad Mode 1 all relevant systems such as ABS operate in a traction-oriented offroad program, in addition to Porsche Hill Control. On models with air suspension and PSM, in turn, the suspension automatically switches to the offroad level.
The toggle switch for the air suspension also allows the driver to choose the special offroad level for an even greater embankment and ramp angle as well as greater ride height for driving through water.
Given their active all-wheel-drive system, the Cayenne, Cayenne S, and Cayenne Turbo come with yet another optional setting: As soon as the driver selects Offroad Mode 2, the longitudinal clutch is closed 100 per cent of even better traction on difficult terrain. At the same time the electronically controlled rear axle differential on the optional Porsche Torque Vectoring Plus (PTV Plus) is integrated in the all-wheel-drive management, automatically ensuring the right dosage of power on particularly bad and rough terrain. Should one of the rear wheels start to slip on slippery or loose ground, for example, the differential lock will smoothly feed drive power to the opposite rear wheel in order to re-gain traction. And should conditions require, all the driver has to do is press the offroad toggle switch for Offroad Mode 3, fully closing the rear axle differential in the process.
Active or permanent all-wheel drive, depending on the character of each model
Porsche Traction Management with active all-wheel drive acts directly on the rear axle. The multiple-plate clutch controlled electronically by an electric motor masterminds the flow of drive power to the front axle in a fully variable process without any fixed distribution.
With slip building up on the rear axle, for example when accelerating, the multiple-plate clutch cuts in harder to feed more drive power to the front axle. Permanently monitoring driving conditions, the system is furthermore able to respond to different situations and requests from the driver, allowing appropriate, dynamic management of active all-wheel drive even able to respond individually and preventively before any unwanted slip is able to build up on one of the axles.
An example: If the driver is steering into a bend, side forces on the wheels steered are increased by reducing the level of drive power on the front axle, thus allowing a high standard of agility and lateral acceleration. Then, when the driver accelerates out of the bend, drive power is spread out evenly between the two axles for maximum traction.
Featuring this technology, active all-wheel drive in the new Porsche Cayenne is identical to the allwheel- drive system to be seen in the Panamera and Porsche's sports cars. At the same time maximum attention has been given to the complex interaction of onroad and offroad requirements on the new Cayenne, which therefore further increase their leading position over their competitors also in this respect.
Permanent all-wheel drive on the Cayenne Diesel and Cayenne S Hybrid is laid out to convey 60 per cent of the drive power to the front axle and 40 per cent to the rear axle under normal conditions. Whenever a wheel on one of the axles starts to spin - for example when running on ice - the difference in speed between the two axles automatically activates the self-locking centre differential, more drive power flowing to the axle with better traction.
Porsche Torque Vectoring Plus for even greater agility
As an option active all-wheel drive on the Cayenne, Cayenne S, and Cayenne Turbo may for the first time be upgraded by new PTV Porsche Torque Vectoring Plus.
PTV Plus serves to enhance both driving dynamics and stability, using variable distribution of drive power on the rear wheels and an electronically controlled cross differential on the rear axle.
Depending on the steering angle and steering speed, the position of the gas pedal, the yaw rate and road speed, PTV Plus improves the vehicle's steering behaviour and steering precision by the brakes intervening as required on one of the rear wheels. To be more precise, the inner rear wheel in a bend is slowed down slightly when the driver turns the steering while driving dynamically on the road. This feeds more power to the outer rear wheel and generates an additional turning motion in the desired direction. The result is even more direct and dynamic steering in a bend.
At low and medium speeds PTV Plus means a significantly higher standard of agility and steering precision. Particularly when accelerating out of a fast bend, and with the wheels spinning, the electronically controlled rear axle differential serves additionally to enhance the level of driving stability.
Interacting with Porsche Traction Management and Porsche Stability Management, PTV Plus also offers enhanced driving stability on various road surfaces, in wet weather and on snow. Under offroad driving conditions, in turn, PTV Plus prevents the rear wheels from spinning.
Yet a further advantage is that any intervention of the brakes is specifically tailored to offroad requirements, the offroad toggle switch in the centre console enabling the driver to apply the rear axle differential lock 100 per cent.
Sporting, Comfortable, Safe
Once again Porsche's engineers have succeeded in making the already excellent driving characteristics of the Cayenne significantly better. And once again, the name of the game is lightweight construction, even greater use of aluminium and special plastic materials as well as constructional improvements reducing the weight of the vehicle by some 66 kg or 145 lb. The reduction in weight achieved in this way not only increases the standard of driving dynamics on lower fuel consumption, but also, by reducing the unsprung masses, serves to significantly enhance the standard of driving comfort.
With the exception of the Porsche Cayenne Turbo, all models comes as standard with steel springs which may for the first time be combined as an option with PASM Porsche Active Suspen sion Management, making the steel suspension even better in providing superior long-distance comfort, even better performance, and supreme agility.
Porsche Active Suspension Management is a bumper system for active, infinite adjustment of the dampers front and rear. On the new Cayenne the driver is able to choose three different programs by means of the PASM suspension buttons on the centre console: Comfort, Normal, and Sport. Depending on the mode selected, road and driving conditions, PASM controls damper power individually on each wheel for optimum results and qualities.
The Porsche Cayenne Turbo comes with new air suspension and PASM is featured as standard in a combination also available as an option on the other models. All air-sprung struts on the front and rear axle are optimised for minimum weight and are now mounted directly on the body for a significant improvement of both torsional stiffness and driving behaviour.
A further important point is that the new air suspension forms a self-contained system storing air in the system's high-pressure reservoir upon any change in ride height. Such interim storage serves, first, to save energy by using a compressor optimised to meet the new requirements and, second, enables the suspension to reach the ride height chosen either manually or automatically more quickly than before.
Last but not least, the new air spring system with PASM, featuring a new set-up of the software, provides an even wider spread of driving characteristics in the three Comfort, Normal and Sport programs.
PDCC Porsche Dynamic Chassis Control as an option
On the Cayenne, Cayenne S, and the Cayenne Turbo, the air suspension and PASM may be further enhanced as an option through the addition of PDDC Porsche Dynamic Chassis Control.
PDCC is an active system serving to stabilise the body of the vehicle in bends. It enhances both driving performance and motoring comfort, ensuring dynamic distribution of roll forces in the interest of supreme agility and an optimum balance of the car.
Hydraulic swivel motors on the active anti-roll bars front and rear build up appropriate forces as a function of the steering angle and lateral acceleration counteracting any side roll of the car in bends. The result is an extremely comfortable and, at the same time, a very sporting driving experience combined with supreme agility at all speeds as well as optimum steering behaviour and good load balance behaviour.
The driver is able to switch PDCC to its offroad mode by means of the toggle switch on the centre console, with the two halves of the active anti-roll bars being largely disconnected from one another in this case for even better traction in rough terrain. This allows greater articulation of the axles, keeping the wheels longer on the ground in order to convey more power and drive force.
Brake system optimised on all versions of the Cayenne
To meet the substantial demands made of the brake system of a Porsche, all new models in the Porsche Cayenne come with an even larger, optimised brake system. In terms of their looks, the brakes differ from one another in accordance with Porsche's well-known colour code: The Cayenne and Cayenne Diesel come with black brake callipers, the brake callipers on the Cayenne S and the Cayenne S Hybrid are in silver, and the Cayenne Turbo boasts red brake callipers.
As an option all models in the range are available with race-proven PCCB Porsche Ceramic Composite Brakes featuring yellow brake callipers.
The front brakes are six-piston aluminium monobloc fixed-calliper brakes with brake discs measuring 350 millimetres/13.8" in diameter on the Cayenne and the Cayenne Diesel. On the Cayenne S and the Cayenne S Hybrid the discs measure 360 millimetres/14.2" in diameter. The Cayenne Turbo, finally, comes with special composite brake discs combining an aluminium cover and a grey cast-iron friction ring measuring 390 millimetres/15.4".
At the rear all models feature four-piston aluminium monobloc fixed-calliper brakes and brake discs measuring 330 millimetres/13.0" in diameter. The only exception in this case is the Porsche Cayenne Turbo which, on account of its supreme performance, features larger brake discs also on the rear wheels measuring 358 millimetres/14.1" in diameter and inner-vented for even better dissipation of heat.
The composite brake discs on the front axle of the Cayenne Turbo help to reduce the weight of the vehicle and unsprung masses, ensuring even better grip on the road, enhanced driving and roll comfort, greater agility, and an even higher standard of handling all round.
All new models in the Porsche Cayenne range come with an electrically operated parking brake positioned very conveniently to the left of the steering wheel. Controlled by a button, the electrical parking brake can be activated manually and deactivated by pressing the foot brake. The parking brake is also released automatically after manual operation once the driver presses down the gas pedal to indicate his intention to start off.
Given all these qualities and features, the electrical parking brake ensures even greater comfort and safety when parking the new Cayenne.
Applying the brakes even better than ever: PCCB Porsche Ceramic Composite Brakes
Like all other Porsche models, the new Cayenne is available as an option with high-performance PCCB Porsche Ceramic Composite Brakes tried and tested in motorsport. Indeed, this is the first time that PCCB brakes are also available on the Cayenne and the Cayenne Diesel.
The decisive advantage of these ceramic brakes is the low weight of the brake discs approximately 50 per cent lighter than grey cast-iron discs of the same type and dimensions. A further benefit is that the brakes respond even faster and more precisely under significantly lower pedal force.
PCCB brakes are available as of a wheel size of 20 inches on the Porsche Cayenne Turbo and 19 inches on the other models. On the Cayenne, the Cayenne Diesel, the Cayenne S and the Cayenne S Hybrid the PCCB brakes come with brake discs measuring 390 millimetres/15.4" in diameter at the front and 370 millimetres/14.6" at the rear. The Cayenne Turbo features brake discs measuring 410 millimetres/16.1" in diameter at the front and 370 millimetres/ 14.6" in diameter at the rear.
Porsche Stability Management for superior driving safety
Enhanced to an even higher level, PSM Porsche Stability Management featured as standard on every model ensures superior active driving safety in terms of both longitudinal and lateral dynamics, while maintaining the agility so typical of a Porsche all the way to the extreme limit.
The PSM set-up has been upgraded for the new generation of models and has been newly adjusted, say, for the combination with new Porsche Traction Management or optional Porsche Torque Vectoring Plus.
Sensors in the PSM system permanently monitor the direction of travel, road speed, the yaw rate and the lateral acceleration of the car. Taking these readings, PSM calculates the actual direction of motion. Should this differ from the desired path and track, PSM will ac tivate the brakes as required on individual wheels in order to stabilise the vehicle.
Steering even more effective than before
The steering on the new generation of the Porsche Cayenne has been completely upgraded and is now even more sporting and dynamic. Particularly around its centre position, it is also more direct.
Variable transmission ratios and the particular set-up of the hydraulic power assistance ensure outstanding agility in the new Cayenne, with the level of efficiency being improved at the same time: The servo pump driven by the combustion engine now operates on demand with the volume flow required being masterminded as a function of driving conditions.
Servotronic standard on the Cayenne S Hybrid and optional on all other models offers steering assistance geared to road speed. At high speeds the steering is firmer, at low speeds the Servotronic power steering moves more easily and smoothly for comfortable manoeuvring.
Unlike the steering systems on the other models, the Porsche Cayenne S Hybrid comes furthermore with electrohydraulic steering, the main difference being the servo pump driven electrically on demand.
New wheels and tyres
The new Cayenne comes on newly developed wheels in unique design measuring 18 - 21 inches. In developing these wheels, Porsche specialists have atta